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The popularity of 3D content is on the rise since it provides an immersive experience to viewers. In this situation, depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) has taken on an important role in 3D technology due to its low bandwidth cost and ease of depth configuration. Noting that the viewer could record provided center view or synthesized views for illegal distribution, it is clear that copyright protection must be taken into account for the DIBR 3D content, including the possibility that one single view could be illegally distributed as 2D content. In this paper, we propose a robust watermarking scheme for DIBR 3D images by quantization on dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) coefficients with consideration of imperceptibility. To make the proposed scheme robust to DIBR process, two characteristics of DT-CWT are employed: approximate shift invariance and directional selectivity. We select certain coefficient sub-blocks and group the coefficient rows based on the properties of DIBR. On the extraction side, the threshold is carefully chosen with a low false positive rate. The simulation results show that the embedded watermark is stably extracted from the center view and the synthesized left and right views. In addition, even if the synthesized left and right views are distorted by general attacks, the watermark is successfully extracted. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is robust to pre-processing of the depth image and baseline adjusting, which are common processing on the DIBR system for better quality of 3D views.
Date of Publication: Dec. 2012