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Wireless Sensor Networks have been used in many mobile applications such as wildlife tracking and participatory urban sensing. Because of the combination of high mobility and low-duty-cycle operations, it is a challenging issue to reduce discovery delay among mobile nodes, so that mobile nodes can establish connection quickly once they are within each other's vicinity. Existing discovery designs are essentially pair-wise based, in which discovery is passively achieved when two nodes are pre-scheduled to wake-up at the same time. In contrast, for the first time, this work reduces discovery delay significantly by proactively referring wake-up schedules among a group of nodes. Because proactive references incur additional overhead, we introduce a novel selective reference mechanism based on spatiotemporal properties of neighborhood and the mobility of the nodes. Our quantitative analysis indicates that the discovery delay of our group-based mechanism is significantly smaller than that of the pair-wise one. Our testbed experiments using 40 sensor nodes confirm our theoretical analysis, showing one order of magnitude reduction in discovery delay compared with traditional pair-wise methods with only 0.5%~8.8% increase in energy consumption.
Date of Conference: 18-21 June 2012