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An improved quantum genetic algorithm (IQGA) is proposed in this paper, which codes the chromosome with probability amplitudes represented by sine and cosine functions, and uses an adaptive strategy of the rotation angle to update the population. Then the mutation operation is considered in this improved quantum genetic algorithm (MIQGA). Rapid convergence and good global search capability characterize the performance of MIQGA. While testing, a variance function is introduced to estimate the stability of the algorithm. When solving 0–1 knapsack problem,greedy repair function is used to repair unfeasible solutions. Experimental results show MIQGA has better comprehensive performance than traditional genetic algorithm (GA), standard quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and IQGA, especially the superiority in terms of optimization quality and population diversity.