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The principle and design of the distributed optical fiber temperature sensing system based on Raman scattering is presented in this paper. The spatial resolution is enhanced by reducing the pulse width of the light source and high speed progressive average etc. The distributed optical fiber sensor not only has the characteristics of resistance to electromagnetic interfere, against fire and so on, but also it can sense the change of temperature along the optical fiber by the form of continuous distance. Because of its ascendency and the augmented performance, This paper also introduces the example used in coal mine goaf temperature monitoring and data analysis.