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This paper discusses the issues about the cyanobacteria bloom identification and monitoring methods based on MODIS satellite images of Dianchi Lake. Through a comparative analysis of the spectral characteristics on typical surface features (clean water, muddy water, vegetation and cyanobacteria) and different concentration of cyanobacteria bloom covering over the water surface of Dianchi Lake, we can get the response sensitive bands information of cyanobacteria bloom. We can also extract the spatial distribution and divide the concentration classification threshold of cyanobacteria bloom in Dianchi Lake by using false color synthesis (MODIS:6-2-1) method, single-band method, ratio vegetation index (RVI) method, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) method, enhanced vegetation index (EVI) method. At the same time, we can analyse the dynamic process about cyanobacteria bloom through multitemporal remote sensing images and difference operation.