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This paper presents a ontology-based semantic query expansion method. This method takes the food safety domain as a background and combines concepts similarity computation model. Firstly, the ontology-based representation method for food safety domain knowledge is proposed. Then, the expansion of queries is realized by the semantic relationships in food safety ontology and the expansion of the lexicon for words segmentation. Finally, concepts similarity computation model is applied to set the expansion range of domain concepts. Experimental results show that this method can not only obtain the search results consistent with the search conditions in the grammatical form, but also obtain the results semantically consistent with the search conditions. Besides, the retrieval results have been sorted according to the relevance.