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In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy output feedback control approach is investigated for a class of stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems without the requirement of states measurement. The stochastic nonlinear system addressed in this paper is assumed to possess unstructured uncertainties (unknown nonlinear functions) and, in the presence of unmodeled dynamics, dynamics disturbances. Fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the unstructured uncertainties, and a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By combining the backstepping design technique with the stochastic small-gain approach, a new adaptive fuzzy output feedback control approach is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that the closed-loop system is input-state-practically stability (ISpS) in probability, and the observer errors and the output of the system converge to a small neighborhood of the origin by appropriate choice of the design parameters. Simulation results are included to indicate that the proposed adaptive fuzzy control approach has a satisfactory control performance. In addition, the simulation comparisons with the previous methods show that the proposed adaptive fuzzy control approach has robustness to the dynamical uncertainties.