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This paper addresses the problem of fault-tolerant control (FTC) for near-space vehicle (NSV) attitude dynamics with actuator faults, which is described by a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. First, a general actuator fault model that integrated varying bias and gain faults, which are assumed to be dependent on the system state, is proposed. Then, sliding mode observers (SMOs) are designed to provide a bank of residuals for fault detection and isolation. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a novel fault diagnostic algorithm is proposed, which removes the classical assumption that the time derivative of the output error should be known. Further, for the two cases where the state is available or not, two accommodation schemes are proposed to compensate for the effect of the faults. These schemes do not need the condition that the bounds of the time derivative of the faults should be known. In addition, a sufficient condition for the existence of SMOs is derived according to Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, simulation results of NSV are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed FTC approach.