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Kinetic study of GeO disproportionation into a GeO2/Ge system using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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3 Author(s)
Kai Wang, Sheng ; Microwave Devices and Integrated Circuits Department, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, #3 Bei-Tu-Cheng West Road, Beijing 100029, China ; Liu, Hong-Gang ; Toriumi, Akira

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GeO disproportionation into GeO2 and Ge is studied through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Direct evidence for the reaction 2GeO → GeO2 + Ge after annealing in ultra-high vacuum is presented. Activation energy for GeO disproportionation is found to be about 0.7 ± 0.2 eV through kinetic and thermodynamic calculations. A kinetic model of GeO disproportionation is established by considering oxygen transfer in the GeO network. The relationship between GeO disproportionation and GeO desorption induced by GeO2/Ge interfacial reaction is discussed, and the apparent contradiction between GeO desorption via interfacial redox reaction and GeO disproportionation into Ge and GeO2 is explained by considering the oxygen vacancy.

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Applied Physics Letters  (Volume:101 ,  Issue: 6 )