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A medical case, as defined by the medical field, is the fundamental building block of medical knowledge. We combine the concept of medical case with indirect evidence from similar patients so as to enable the performance of CER (comparative effectiveness research) treatment comparisons for personalization of medical care. We propose that the vehicle by which this goal is achieved is provided by the integration of case-based reasoning and CER considerations. We discuss the challenges involved and propose a roadmap for creating scientifically sound real-world evidence for assisting personalized treatment decisions.
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