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Bismuth-doped optical glasses emit NIR luminescence in an ultrabroad spectral region of 1000-2000 nm. It makes Bi-doped glasses and glass optical fibers a promising active medium for the creation of Bi-doped fiber lasers and broadband optical amplifiers for this spectral region. Since the first fabrication of Bi-doped fibers in 2005 a large number of papers devoted to the development of Bi-doped fiber lasers and optical amplifiers have been published. It has been shown that Bi-doped fibers are a new breakthrough in active laser materials.