Skip to Main Content
Energy-efficient communication using a class of spatial modulation (SM) that encodes the source information entirely in the antenna indices is considered in this paper. The energy-efficient modulation design is formulated as a convex optimization problem, where minimum achievable average symbol power consumption is derived with rate, performance, and hardware constraints. The theoretical result bounds any modulation scheme of this class, and encompasses the existing space shift keying (SSK), generalized SSK (GSSK), and Hamming code-aided SSK (HSSK) schemes as special cases. The theoretical optimum is achieved by the proposed practical energy-efficient HSSK (EE-HSSK) scheme that incorporates a novel use of the Hamming code and Huffman code techniques in the alphabet and bit-mapping designs. Experimental studies demonstrate that EE-HSSK significantly outperforms existing schemes in achieving near-optimal energy efficiency. An analytical exposition of key properties of the existing GSSK (including SSK) modulation that motivates a fundamental consideration for the proposed energy-efficient modulation design is also provided.