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Intra-, Inter-, and Extra-Container Path Loss for Shipping Container Monitoring Systems

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5 Author(s)
Emmeric Tanghe ; Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/IBBT, Ghent, Belgium ; Wout Joseph ; Peter Ruckebusch ; Luc Martens
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This letter presents empirical path loss models for an environment of stacked shipping containers. Specifically, a system for wireless monitoring of containers is considered for which three different types of wireless links are identified, namely intra-, inter-, and extra-container links. Furthermore, the inter-container link is investigated for the two most common types of container stacking: row and block stacking. Intra- and inter-container path loss are investigated at IEEE 802.15.4 frequencies of 433, 868, and 2400 MHz. Extra-container path loss is examined at GSM/UMTS frequencies of 900, 1850, and 2100 MHz. Distance-dependent path loss models are proposed for the inter- and extra-container links (high-correlation coefficients between 0.76 and 0.86). The resulting path loss models can be used in link budget calculations for container monitoring systems.

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IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters  (Volume:11 )