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The OpenGIS Web Processing Service (WPS) can process both simple and complex geospatial tasks including Earth Observation tasks. As the requirements of Earth Observation data, algorithms, calculation models, and daily life become increasingly complicated; WPS needs to provide high-performance service-oriented computing capability. This paper proposes a cloud computing enabled WPS framework for Earth Observation data processing. It consists of a client layer and a WPS layer, which further consists of a WPS server layer and a cloud computing layer. The cloud computing environment is based on the open-source software Apache Hadoop. The three layers of the proposed cloud computing enabled WPS are outlined, followed by a workflow that processes a user's task using these three layers. Then technological implementation details are explained. An experiment processing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data shows that WPS can be enabled in a cloud computing environment.