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Robots are generally equipped with at least several different modalities of sensors. Vision and range sensors are the most popular, especially in mobile robots. On the other hand, olfaction (or chemical sensing in general) had long been ignored in the robotics community because of the technical difficulties involved in realizing artificial olfaction on robotic platforms. Over the past two decades, however, various attempts are made to use chemical sensors in robotic applications. With the help of chemical sensors, mobile robots can follow chemical trails laid on the ground, track chemical plumes to find their sources, and build distribution maps of chemical substances. This paper is intended to present a brief history and the current trends of the research in this emerging field.