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Water-insoluble organic compound of 1-decanol was decomposed by a water plasma system operated at atmospheric pressure. It was dispersed in water by a surfactant generating an oil-in-water emulsion, and then, the emulsion was used as the feeding liquid and plasma-forming gas of the water plasma jet. The input power supplied to the dc water plasma system was less than 1 kW. High decomposition rate over 99.9999% was achieved with the conversion of 1-decanol emulsion into H2, CO, CO2, CH4, condensed liquid, and solid-state carbon. The gas conversion rate of carbon in 1-decanol and the removal rate of total organic carbon concentration were increased by increasing the arc current due to enhanced O radicals in the high temperature of the water plasma jet. Different from the decomposition of water-soluble 1-butanol, noticeable changes in the decomposition rate and pH level were not founded in the treatment of 1-decanol emulsion according to carbon concentration in the feeding liquid. The main organic substance in the treated liquid of 1-decanol emulsion was methanediol which was produced by the hydration of formaldehyde.