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Finding the Probability Distribution Functions of S -Parameters and Their Monte Carlo Simulation

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4 Author(s)
Agili, S.S. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Pennsylvania State Univ. at Harrisburg, Middletown, PA, USA ; Morales, A.W. ; Li, J. ; Resso, M.

This paper presents the probability distribution function (PDF) of the ratio of two random waves. This result is used to obtain the PDF of S-parameters random errors in magnitude (in decibels) and phase, which are the quantities that most engineers work with. These results are further used on the development of a Monte Carlo simulation method in order to predict the variability of frequency-domain measurements. Experiments are performed to identify and characterize frequency-domain random errors, such as instrument noise, connector repeatability, and calibration variations, in measurement systems. By comparing with real measurement data, it is shown that random-error effects can be accurately estimated by the PDF's obtained and the Monte Carlo technique.

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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:61 ,  Issue: 11 )