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We studied GaN-based optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells (SCs) with graphene electrodes. A decoration of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on multi-layer graphene films improved the electrical conductivity and modified the work function of the graphene films. The Au NP-decorated graphene film enhanced the current injection and electroluminescence of GaN-based LEDs through low contact resistance and improved the power conversion efficiency of GaN-based SCs through additional light absorption and energy band alignment. Our study will enhance the understanding of the role of Au NP-decorated graphene electrodes for GaN-based optoelectronic device applications.