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The 21st century has brought with it a strong push in the automotive industry to develop energy technologies that can better address the global challenges posed by the depletion of finite fossil fuel resources and the pollution caused by using these fossil fuels as an energy resource. The two key words dominating automotive powertrain research today, therefore, are efficiency and emissions-There is a strong push for cars that burn less fuel and emit fewer pollutants. Some of the technologies in the spotlight include fuel cells, batteries, hybrid powertrains, and advanced IC engine strategies. Though fuel cells and battery technologies are very promising in the long-term future, they are currently more expensive and less practical than hybrid and advanced combustion engine strategies and are expected to remain so in the near future. In addition, technological advances that have made electronic control systems ubiquitous in todays automobiles have enabled combustion strategies that would not have been possible even a decade ago. One such advanced engine strategy that presents significant opportunities for reduced emissions and higher efficiencies is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI).