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We have investigated the relation of bonding states in as-deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) films and the incorporation of N and O atoms into DLC films, following plasma treatment of the surface. After deposition with various coating methods and under different conditions, the DLC films were treated with NH3 or O2 plasma. We investigated the changes in bonding states of the films using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggested that the incorporation due to plasma treatment was affected by the bonding states in the as-deposited DLC films. The C-H/C-C and the sp2 C-C/sp3 C-C ratios in the as-deposited DLC films play an important role in controlling N and O incorporation into the DLC films.