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Online sensing of sheet modulus of elasticity in the dry-end spans of printing grade paper machines (PMs) will permit the machine operators to control the mechanical properties of the produced paper. This paper develops an integrated sensorless tension control and sheet modulus of elasticity estimation algorithm, which is tested using field-recorded signals from a production PM and using a full model of the dry-end sections of this machine. Results show the ability of the proposed estimation algorithm to predict the sheet tension (tensile force) and sheet modulus of elasticity even in the presence of rapid changes in the speed and/or in other process operating conditions. The developed algorithms offer the papermaker new insights into the papermaking process. The ability to understand how modulus changes in real time provides a pathway to optimizing the operation of the PM drive system.