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We propose a performance verification technique for cyber-physical systems that consist of multiple control loops implemented on a distributed architecture. The architectures we consider are fairly generic and arise in domains such as automotive and industrial automation; they are multiple processors or electronic control units (ECUs) communicating over buses like FlexRay and CAN. Current practice involves analyzing the architecture to estimate worst-case end-to-end message delays and using these delays to design the control applications. This involves a significant amount of pessimism since the worst-case delays often occur very rarely. We show how to combine functional analysis techniques with model checking in order to derive a delay-frequency interface that quantifies the interleavings between messages with worst-case delays and those with smaller delays. In other words, we bound the frequency with which control messages might suffer the worst-case delay. We show that such a delay-frequency interface enables us to verify much tigher control performance properties compared to what would be possible with only worst-case delay bounds.
Date of Conference: 3-7 June 2012