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Distributed Generators as Providers of Reactive Power Support—A Market Approach

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2 Author(s)
Rueda-Medina, A.C. ; Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP-Ilha Solteira), Sao Paulo, Brazil ; Padilha-Feltrin, A.

Traditionally, ancillary services are supplied by large conventional generators. However, with the huge penetration of distributed generators (DGs) as a result of the growing interest in satisfying energy requirements, and considering the benefits that they can bring along to the electrical system and to the environment, it appears reasonable to assume that ancillary services could also be provided by DGs in an economical and efficient way. In this paper, a settlement procedure for a reactive power market for DGs in distribution systems is proposed. Attention is directed to wind turbines connected to the network through synchronous generators with permanent magnets and doubly-fed induction generators. The generation uncertainty of this kind of DG is reduced by running a multi-objective optimization algorithm in multiple probabilistic scenarios through the Monte Carlo method and by representing the active power generated by the DGs through Markov models. The objectives to be minimized are the payments of the distribution system operator to the DGs for reactive power, the curtailment of transactions committed in an active power market previously settled, the losses in the lines of the network, and a voltage profile index. The proposed methodology was tested using a modified IEEE 37-bus distribution test system.

Published in:

Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:28 ,  Issue: 1 )