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A size-dependent strain relaxation and its effects on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (QWs) in micro-pillars have been investigated through a combination of high spatial resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging and numerical modeling. The pillars have diameters (d) ranging from 2 to 150 μm and were fabricated from a III-nitride light-emitting diode (LED) structure optimized for yellow-green emission at ∼560 nm. The CL mapping enables us to investigate strain relaxation in these pillars on a sub-micron scale and to confirm for the first time that a narrow (≤2 μm) edge blue-shift occurs even for the large InGaN/GaN pillars (d > 10 μm). The observed maximum blue-shift at the pillar edge exceeds 7 nm with respect to the pillar centre for the pillars with diameters in the 2–16 μm range. For the smallest pillar (d = 2 μm), the total blue-shift at the edge is 17.5 nm including an 8.2 nm “global” blue-shift at the pillar centre in comparison with the unetched wafer. By using a finite element method with a boundary condition taking account of a strained GaN buffer layer which was neglected in previous simulation works, the strain distribution in the QWs of these pillars was simulated as a function of pillar diameter. The blue-shift in the QWs emission wavelength was then calculated from the strain-dependent changes in piezoelectric field, and the consequent modification of transition energy in the QWs. The simulation and experimental results agree well, confirming the necessity for considering the strained buffer layer in the strain simulation. These results provide not only significant insights into the mechanism of strain relaxation in these micro-pillars but also practical guidance for design of micro/nano LEDs.