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We present quantitative coherent measurements of scattering pulses and spectra in terahertz apertureless near-field microscopes. Broadband near-field image contrasts for both amplitude and phase spectra are measured directly from time-domain scattering signals with an unprecedentedly high single-scan signal-to-noise ratio (∼48 dB), with approach curves for both short (<200 nm) and long (up to 82 μm) ranges. By using the line dipole image method, we obtain quantitative broadband THz imaging contrasts with nanoscale resolution.