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Transformation of space coordinates can be used as a convenient tool for producing a controlled electromagnetic field pattern. In this paper, using a conformal transformation, the design procedure of a lens antenna with high gain and low sidelobes is presented which can be realized by isotropic graded refractive index (GRIN) materials. Applying proper simplifying techniques, the designed lens can be made by non-resonant metamaterials or non-magnetic dielectrics having wide frequency band and low loss. A graded photonic crystal (GPC) operating in metamaterial regime is used for this purpose. By placing the lens in a horn antenna, a highly directive beam is achieved. It is also shown that by lateral displacement of the lens medium, the beam direction can be controlled to some extent. A multibeam antenna in which each beam can be controlled independently is also presented. Simulation results are used to justify the design approach.
Date of Publication: Sept. 2012