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In this paper, a novel knowledge-based global operation approach is proposed to minimize the effect on the production performance caused by unexpected variations in the operation of a mineral processing plant subjected to uncertainties. For this purpose, a feedback compensation and adaptation signal discovered from process operational data is employed to construct a closed-loop dynamic operation strategy. It uses the signal to regulate the outputs of the existing open-loop and steady-state based system so as to compensate the uncertainty in the steady-state operation at the plant-wide level. The utilization mechanism of operational data through constructing increment association rules is firstly described. Then, a rough set based rule extraction approach is developed to generate the compensation rules. This includes two steps, namely the determination of the variables to be compensated based on the significance of attributes in the rough set theory and the extraction of the compensation rules from process data. Based upon the operational data of the mineral processing plant, relevant rules are obtained. Both simulation and industrial experiments are carried out for the proposed global operation, where the effectiveness of the proposed approach has been clearly justified.