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This paper proposes a method based on differential evolution (DE) algorithm for the problem of optimal placement of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in an electric power network. The problem is to minimize the required number of PMUs and, at the same time, maximize the PMU measurement redundancy subject to the constraint of achieving full network observability. Network observability is assessed with the aid of the topological observability rules. In order to cope with the continuous changes in the power system's topology, the optimization problem is formulated considering not only the new PMUs to be installed but also the existing ones to be retained or relocated. Additionally, the new formulation takes into account the locations, if any, at which PMUs shall or shall not be placed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus, 39-bus and 57-bus standard systems.
Date of Conference: 17-20 Dec. 2011