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Highly stable charge generation layers using caesium phosphate as n-dopants and inserting interlayers

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5 Author(s)
Diez, Carola ; OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, Leibnizstrasse 4, 93055 Regensburg, Germany ; Reusch, Thilo C.G. ; Lang, Erwin ; Dobbertin, Thomas
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Highly stable and efficient charge generation layers (CGLs) comprising caesium phosphate (Cs3PO4) doped 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) as n-type organic semiconductor and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) doped N,N′-di-(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenyl-benzidine (α-NPD) as p-type organic semiconductor, respectively, are presented. By inserting narrow-gap organic copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and wide-gap insulating aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as interlayer (IL), we show that the long-term stability of the CGL can be improved. The variation of the CuPc IL thickness yields an optimum of 8 nm as a trade-off between minimal operating voltage and maximum voltage stability of the CGL. Luminance-current density-voltage characteristics and lifetime measurements of stacked green organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) confirm the functionality and high voltage stability of the presented CGL. The luminous efficacy of the stacked OLED compared to the non-stacked reference device is nearly unchanged. However, the lifetime of the stacked device is enhanced by a factor of 3.5. Consistent with our experimental findings, we propose a model of the energy-level diagram of a fully doped CGL with IL based on a field-assisted tunneling mechanism.

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Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:111 ,  Issue: 10 )