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We propose a novel adaptive transmission scheme for space-time coded multiple-input multiple-output beamforming systems with imperfect channel state information at the transmitter, of which the signal constellation, total transmit power (temporal power), and power allocation among eigen-beams (spatial power) are jointly adapted to maximize the average spectral efficiency, subject to a target bit-error-rate and an average power constraint. The power allocation over the spatial and temporal domains makes the traditional approach of partitioning the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) inapplicable to the above design problem. By introducing a new variable, called as effective signal-to-noise-to-modulation ratio (ESNMR), we derive a rate-selection policy by partitioning the range of the ESNMR with an optimal set of thresholds. A closed-form temporal power control policy and a simple spatial power allocation algorithm are also obtained. Numerical results demonstrate that the new adaptive transmission scheme yields a significant performance gain over existing adaptation systems.