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Prediction of the deformation is an important means of the construction parameter adjustment and the construction safety of deep foundation pit. Combining particle swarm optimization with neural network algorithm, The prediction method for the deformation of deep foundation pit based on neural network algorithm optimized by particle swarm is established. In order to improve the prediction accuracy and prediction efficiency of the neural network algorithm, The initial weights and the initial threshold value of neural network model are optimized by using particle swarm optimization. In the neural network model, the deformation of foundation pit is predicted by the optimized initial weights and the optimized initial threshold value. Relying on the practical engineering, the effectiveness and practicality of the method proposed in this paper are verified.