Skip to Main Content
Motivated by the needs of precise carbon emission measurement and real-time surveillance for CO2 management in cities, we present CitySee, a real-time CO2-monitoring system using sensor networks for an urban area (around 100 square kilometers). In order to conduct environment monitoring in a real-time and long-term manner, CitySee has to address the following challenges, including sensor deployment, data collection, data processing, and network management. In this discussion, we mainly focus on the sensor deployment problem so that necessary requirements like connectivity, coverage, data representability are satisfied. We also briefly go through the solutions for the remaining challenges. In CitySee, the sensor deployment problem can be abstracted as a relay node placement problem under hole-constraint. By carefully taking all constraints and real deployment situations into account, we propose efficient and effective approaches and prove that our scheme uses additional relay nodes at most twice of the minimum. We evaluate the performance of our approach through extensive simulations resembling realistic deployment. The results show that our approach outperforms previous strategies. We successfully apply this design into CitySee, a large-scale wireless sensor network consisting of 1096 relay nodes and 100 sensor nodes in Wuxi City, China.