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In this paper, we present Raman scattering and luminescence of poly-paraphenylene vinylene/single-walled carbon nanotubes composites, focused on data recorded in the anti-Stokes branch. We demonstrate that, when the excitation energy is in the long wavelength tail of the fundamental absorption edge, an anti-Stokes signal is generated, whose origin is a photon absorption accompanied by a phonon process from lower to upper vibronic states. The efficiency of this anti-Stokes photo-luminescence is increased when composites films are deposited onto an Au rough surface acting as a surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate. This mechanism is explained by a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering-like process, as observed in other nano-structured materials.