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A brain computer interface-based smart living environmental auto-adjustment control system (BSLEACS) is proposed in this paper. Recently, many environmental control systems have been proposed to improve human quality of life. However, little research has focused on environmental control directly using the human physiological state. Based on the advantage of our technique on brain computer interface (BCI), we integrated the BCI technique with universal plug and play (UPnP) home networking for smart house applications. BSLEACS mainly consists of a wireless physiological signal acquisition module, an embedded signal processing module, a simple control protocol/power line communication environmental controller, and a host system. Here, the physiological signal acquisition module and embedded signal processing module were designed for long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring and backend analysis, respectively. The advantages of low power consumption and small volume of the above modules are suitable for smart house applications in daily life. Moreover, different from other BCI systems, the property of using only a single EEG channel to monitor cognitive state also makes BSLEACS become more practicable. BSLEACS has been verified in a practical demo room, and the environmental adjustment can be automatically controlled by the change of the user's cognitive state. BSLEACS provides a novel system prototype for environmental control, and can be simply extended and integrated with the UPnP home networking for other applications.