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Energy Management Systems monitor and control the behavior of an underlying system, allowing it to fulfill its primary purpose at the same time balancing across multiple constraints including cost optimization, system reliability, and environmental considerations. Examples of such systems include building energy management systems, where electrical and HVAC resources are optimized to deliver human comfort; microgrid management, where generators, energy storage, and renewable energy resources are balanced with loads to provide electrical service; and datacenter energy management, where electrical and cooling resources are balanced to provide a reliable computing resource. This paper analyzes these disparate energy management systems and defines a model for resource allocation that can be used for these and other energy management systems. The paper then shows how this model can be used across these domains.