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Understanding and improving the thermal management and energy efficiency of data center cooling systems is of growing importance from a cost and sustainability perspective. Toward this goal, warm liquid cooled servers were developed to enable highly energy efficient chiller-less data centers that utilize only “free” ambient environment cooling. This approach greatly reduces cooling energy use, and could reduce data center refrigerant and make up water usage. In one exemplary experiment, a rack having such liquid cooled servers was tested on a hot summer day (~32°C) with CPU exercisers and memory exercisers running on every server to provide steady heat dissipation from the processors and from the DIMMs, respectively. Compared to a typical air cooled rack, significantly lower DIMM temperatures and CPU thermal values were observed.