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Plasma production or plasma injection in liquid water affords one the opportunity to nonthermally inject advanced oxidation processes into water for the purpose of purification or chemical processing. Such technology could potentially revolutionize the treatment of drinking water, as well as current methods of chemical processing through the elimination of physical catalysts. Presented here is an overview of current water treatment technology, its limitations, and the future, which may feature plasma-based advanced oxidation techniques. As such, this field represents an emerging and active area of research. The role that plasma-driven water chemistry can play in addressing emerging threats to the water supply is discussed using case study examples. Limitations of conventional plasma injection approaches include limited throughput capacity, electrode erosion, and reduced process volume. At the University of Michigan, we are investigating two potential approaches designed to circumvent such issues. These include direct plasma injection using an underwater DBD plasma jet and the direct production of plasmas in isolated underwater bubbles via a pulsed electric field. These approaches are presented here, along with the results.