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Review of charging power levels and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles

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2 Author(s)
Yilmaz, M. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA ; Krein, P.T.

This paper reviews the current status and implementation of battery chargers, charging power levels and infrastructure for plug-in electric vehicles and hybrids. Battery performance depends both on types and design of the batteries, and on charger characteristics and charging infrastructure. Charger systems are categorized into off-board and on-board types with unidirectional or bidirectional power flow. Unidirectional charging limits hardware requirements and simplifies interconnection issues. Bidirectional charging supports battery energy injection back to the grid. Typical onboard chargers restrict the power because of weight, space and cost constraints. They can be integrated with the electric drive for avoiding these problems. The availability of a charging infrastructure reduces on-board energy storage requirements and costs. On-board charger systems can be conductive or inductive. While conductive chargers use direct contact, inductive chargers transfer power magnetically. An off-board charger can be designed for high charging rates and is less constrained by size and weight. Level 1 (convenience), Level 2 (primary), and Level 3 (fast) power levels are discussed. These system configurations vary from country to country depending on the source and plug capacity standards. Various power level chargers and infrastructure configurations are presented, compared, and evaluated based on amount of power, charging time and location, cost, equipment, effect on the grid, and other factors.

Published in:

Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), 2012 IEEE International

Date of Conference:

4-8 March 2012