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In this paper, a new turbo codes-based hybrid automatic repeat request (TC-HARQ) scheme with segment selective repeat (SSR) is proposed. The main strategy is, upon retransmission, to repeat the data that are most important for the next round of decoding based on the distribution of residual errors after current decoding. The performance in terms of reliability and throughput is analyzed. To adapt to correlated fading channels where an inter-leaver is always employed before transmission, we further modify the SSR strategy so that data having experienced correlated deep fading are selected for retransmission. Finally, this proposed scheme is applied to the wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) system under frequency selective fading channels. Simulation results demonstrate that in all single and multiple user cases, SSR-based TC-HARQ leads to significant throughput improvement with similar bit error rate (BER) performance as compared to type-I TC-HARQ.