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In robotics object tracking is needed to steer towards objects, check if grasping is successful, or investigate objects more closely by poking or handling them. While many 3D object tracking approaches have been proposed in the past, real world settings pose challenges such as automatically detecting tracking failure, real-time processing, and robustness to occlusion, illumination, and view point changes. This paper presents a 3D tracking system that is capable of overcoming these difficulties using a monocular camera. We present a method of Tracking-State-Detection (TSD) that takes advantage of commercial graphics processors to map textures onto object geometry, to learn textures online, and to recover object pose in real-time. Our system is able to handle 6 DOF object motion during changing lighting conditions, partial occlusion and motion blur while maintaining an accuracy of a few millimetres. Furthermore using TSD we are able to automatically detect occlusions or whether we lost track, and can then trigger a SIFT-based recognition system that is trained during tracking to recover the pose. Evaluations are presented in relation to ground truth pose data and examples present TSD on real-world scenes presented in video sequences.