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Currently, smart substation is the hot research. This paper mainly studies the key technology of IEC 61850-based smart substation model configuration and check, solving the urgent problems of primary and secondary equipment model configuration and model check about substation. Firstly, this paper simply presents the characteristics of smart substation, analyzing the primary and secondary equipment model configuration. By comparing the similarities and differences of configuration requirements, especially the primary equipment model configuration requirements and their topology, between the smart substation and digital substation. Second, IEC 61850-based primary equipment configuration syntax and semantics principle about smart substation are presented, which is the first domestic creation and plays an important role in guiding the construction of the smart substation and smart grid. Primary equipment model is obtained by editing icon on the interface, which is easily associated with the secondary equipment model. At last, in the term of configuration principle, the responding primary equipment check principle and check tool are presented. This paper solves the key technology of model configuration and check, which could greatly facilitate the model configuration at the same time improve accuracy, and play an important role in building smart substation and grid.