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An x-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) system using a cone-beam type x-ray was developed. The field of view and the spatial resolution are 36 × 24.05 mm2 and 20 μm, respectively. The three-dimensional velocity field was reconstructed by adopting the least squares minimum residue and simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction techniques. According to a simulation study with synthetic images, the reconstructions were acceptable with 7 projections and 50 iterations. The reconstructed and supplied flow rates differed by only about 6.49% in experimental verification. The x-ray tomographic PIV system would be useful for 3D velocity field information of opaque flows.