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The fabrication of close-packed clover-shaped photonic crystal structure on GaN by dual-step nanosphere lithography is demonstrated. By shrinkage of spheres prior to pattern transfer, a non-closed-packed clover-shaped photonic bandgap (PBG) structure, as designed by modified 3D finite-difference time-domain simulation, is also realized. The PBG of the close-packed and non-close-packed clover-shaped structures is verified through optical transmission spectroscopy, found to agree well with simulated results. A threefold enhancement in photoluminescence (PL) intensity is observed from the optimized structure, when the PBG is tuned to overlap with the emission band of the InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells. From time-resolved PL measurements, shortened decay lifetimes are observed.