Cart (Loading....) | Create Account
Close category search window

Finding needles in the haystack: Search and candidate generation

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $31
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

6 Author(s)
Chu-Carroll, J. ; IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA ; Fan, J. ; Boguraev, B.K. ; Carmel, D.
more authors

A key phase in the DeepQA architecture is Hypothesis Generation, in which candidate system responses are generated for downstream scoring and ranking. In the IBM Watson™ system, these hypotheses are potential answers to Jeopardy!™ questions and are generated by two components: search and candidate generation. The search component retrieves content relevant to a given question from Watson's knowledge resources. The candidate generation component identifies potential answers to the question from the retrieved content. In this paper, we present strategies developed to use characteristics of Watson's different knowledge sources and to formulate effective search queries against those sources. We further discuss a suite of candidate generation strategies that use various kinds of metadata, such as document titles or anchor texts in hyperlinked documents. We demonstrate that a combination of these strategies brings the correct answer into the candidate answer pool for 87.17% of all the questions in a blind test set, facilitating high end-to-end question-answering performance.

Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distributing this Article with permission of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who is the exclusive owner. The recipient of this Article may not assign, sublicense, lease, rent or otherwise transfer, reproduce, prepare derivative works, publicly display or perform, or distribute the Article.  

Published in:

IBM Journal of Research and Development  (Volume:56 ,  Issue: 3.4 )

Date of Publication:

May-June 2012

Need Help?

IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity About IEEE Xplore | Contact | Help | Terms of Use | Nondiscrimination Policy | Site Map | Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.