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Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are the next generation of engineered systems in which computing, communication, and control technologies are tightly integrated. Research on CPSs is fundamentally important for engineered systems in many important application domains such as transportation, energy, and medical systems. We overview CPS research from both a historical point of view in terms of technologies developed for early generations of control systems, as well as recent results on CPSs in many relevant research domains such as networked control, hybrid systems, real-time computing, real-time networking, wireless sensor networks, security, and model-driven development. We outline the potential for CPSs in many societally important application domains.