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Neurosurgery is an important way to save life in clinical application. As a novel assistant technology for neurosurgery, neural monitoring is used to real-time observe neural state to prevent nerve injury. In this paper, a neural monitoring electronic system based on the methodology of system on programmable chip is presented. On the system, analog and digital circuits are integrated, whereas field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware and NIOS II embedded software are co-operated. Some key modules such as preprocessing box, self-adaptive amplification, digital filter, frequency measure, and secure digital card storage are described in detail, and the function of the system is verified by multiform examinations.