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With the increasing popularity of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), they will be able to help the power grid by providing various ancillary services. In fact, recent studies have suggested that PEVs can participate in frequency regulation. In this paper, we consider offering both, i.e., combined, frequency and voltage regulation by PEVs. In this regard, we first investigate a set of constraints that need to be taken into account on PEVs' active and reactive power flow to offer ancillary services. Next, we formulate two joint optimization problems, based on different pricing and contract scenarios, that can be solved for optimal combined offering of frequency and voltage regulation by PEVs. They address both day-ahead command-based and day-ahead price-based models. Simulation results show that the proposed designs can benefit both users and utilities.
Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), 2012 IEEE PES
Date of Conference: 16-20 Jan. 2012