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In this article, the state of the art on high-precision motion control techniques is surveyed by referring to recent publications, mainly in the transactions and conferences of the IEEEIndustrial Electronics Society (IES), where a 2-degree-of-freedom (DoF) control framework is considered a practical and promising approach to improving motion performance. The actual issues and relevant solutions for each component in the 2-DoF control structure are clarified. Next, one of the examples, a 2-DoF controller design for robust vibration suppression positioning, is presented as an application to industrial high-precision positioning devices. Precise modeling and identification for the target mechatronic systems should be indispensable from the standpoint of more accurate model-based feedforward compensation and/or more progressive design of feedback controllers.