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Metamaterials are materials typically engineered with novel or artificial structures to produce electromagnetic properties that are unusual or difficult to obtain in nature. Because of their promise to provide engineerable permittivity, permeability, and index of refraction, metamaterials have drawn broad interest and have led to possible utilization in many electromagnetic applications from the microwave to optical regime, especially for the radiated-wave devices. This paper presents a detailed review upon the most recent research efforts associated with those metamaterial-based small antennas. They are discussed and classified in several different categories such as the antennas based on dispersion engineering, metaresonators, and metamaterial loadings. Some practical difficulties or limitations for the development of metamaterial-based small antennas are pointed out and the possible approaches to resolve these problems are also illustrated. A wide variety of antenna examples are included to facilitate the understanding for general readers.