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Comprehensive 3-D simulations have been carried out and compared with experimental data highlighting the dominant sources of statistical variability in 32-nm high-κ/metal gate MOSFET technology. The statistical variability sources include random discrete dopants, line edge roughness, and metal gate granularity. Their relative importance is highlighted in the numerical simulations. Excellent agreement is achieved between the simulated and measured standard deviation of the threshold voltage.
Date of Publication: May 2012